About the Journal

Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management covers all aspects of applied crop, forage and grazing lands, and turfgrass management. CFTM publishes research, briefs, reviews, perspectives, and diagnostic and management guides that are useful to researchers, practitioners, educators, and industry representatives.

Featured Article

Tractor in crop field
Agronomic Management of Early Maturing Soybeans in North Carolina

Interest in producing indeterminate, early maturing soybean varieties [maturity group (MG) ≤IV] has increased in the southeastern United States as producers seek ways to increase soybean yields. This study sought to generate agronomic management recommendations for early maturing soybean varieties across the southeastern United States and compare these management recommendations to historical recommendations for later-maturing varieties through identification of the optimal seeding rates, row spacing, planting dates, and fertility management. Read more

Browse Articles

Effect of thiamethoxam seed treatment in peanut

  •  27 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • Thiamethoxam was less effective than phorate in preventing visible injury caused by thrips.
  • Protection of yield from thrips injury by insecticides was important for both market types.
  • Less tomato spotted wilt was observed when phorate was applied compared with thiamethoxam.

Tolerance of fine fescues to indaziflam formulations in minimal‐to‐no mow golf course rough

  •  24 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • Indaziflam sprays at 0.044 lb a.i. acre−1 reduced cover by 38–42% compared to the nontreated.
  • Less indaziflam injury occurred following granular applications than liquid spray formulations.
  • Plots thinned from indaziflam injury provided better golfer playability ratings.
  • Indaziflam use in fine fescue roughs should be limited to sites where thinning is tolerable.

Open access

Homeowner perceptions of watering restriction scenarios in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area

  •  16 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • Homeowners held slightly favorable views across all lawn watering restriction scenarios.
  • Water conservation attitudes significantly predicted support for lawn watering restrictions.
  • Lawn irrigation systems increased watering likelihood despite support for water conservation.
  • Municipalities should assess homeowner attitudes before adopting ordinances to improve adoption.

Open access

Evaluation of incorporated phosphorus fertilizer recommendations on no‐till managed winter wheat

  •  12 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • Oklahoma State University P fertilizer recommendations provided adequate P to support optimum yields on most soils evaluated.
  • An additional 30 lb acre−1 P2O5 offset the effects of soil acidity on P uptake, regardless of the degree of soil acidity.
  • Phosphorus recommendations based on Mehlich-3 extraction and soil pH did not limit no-till wheat fields.

Open access

Pre‐emergence herbicides, not carrier volume, impacted weed management in conventional tillage systems

  •  7 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • Spray carrier volume did not influence weed control of corn and soybean pre-emergence herbicides in conventional tillage systems.
  • Pre-emergence herbicide selection influenced weed control in corn and soybean under conventional tillage systems.
  • Effective pre-emergence herbicides can be utilized at lower spray carrier volumes without compromising their efficacy in conventional tillage systems.

more >

Flue‐cured tobacco response to sub‐lethal rates of glufosinate

Core Ideas

  • Drift of non-labeled herbicides can injure tobacco and result in contract losses
  • Glufosinate injury may range from ≈10% to >80% over the 14 day period after exposure
  • Cured leaf yield may decline by 3 to 45%, depending upon the exposure rate

Herbage accumulation and nutritive value of stockpiled limpograsses and ‘tifton 85’ bermudagrass

Core Ideas

  •  Gibtuck had superior herbage accumulation and should be preferred in north Florida.
  •  Tifton 85 can be used as stockpiled forage; however, it had greater decline in digestibility.
  •  Stockpiling is a viable management practice to decrease feed cost during the cool-season.

Flue‐cured tobacco holding‐ability is affected by harvest timing

Core Ideas

  1. Upperstalk leaves from the varieties K326 and NC196 have a similar holding-ability

  2. Final harvest should conclude by the time upperstalk leaves have been ripe for ≈13 days

  3. Yield and value decline when harvest is delayed from 14 to 33 days over-ripe

more >
Open access

Industrial Hemp Response to Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilization

Abstract

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) production has increased in Canada in recent years, and interest for this multipurpose crop remains high. The lack of agronomic guidelines for Eastern Canada represents, however, a limiting factor for local hemp production. This study assessed biomass and seed yields and composition of two hemp cultivars (CRS-1 and Anka), following various N, P, and K fertilization treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N or K ha−1; 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P ha−1). The experiment was conducted in multiple environments in the province of Québec. Positive linear and quadratic responses of biomass yield, seed yield, and seed crude protein concentration to N fertilization were observed in all environments; the magnitude of the response depended, however, on the environment and cultivar. Across environments and cultivars, biomass and seed yields increased from 1674 to 4209 kg ha−1 and from 519 to 1340 kg ha−1, respectively, with the application of 200 kg N ha−1 when compared with the unfertilized control. Nitrogen fertilization affected biomass cellulose and hemicellulose concentrations, but the overall response remained minimal. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizations had very limited effect on biomass and seed yields and composition in all environments. In conclusion, while industrial hemp responded to N fertilization up to 200 kg N ha−1, response to P and K fertilization remained limited.

Open access

Irrigation Water Management Practices that Reduce Water Requirements for Mid‐South Furrow‐Irrigated Soybean

Abstract

Core Ideas

  • Irrigation water management practices reduced total water use 21%.
  • Irrigation water management practices increased irrigation water use efficiency 36%.
  • Sensor-based scheduling reduced irrigation by 50%.

Withdrawal for agricultural uses has decreased water levels in the Mississippi Alluvial River Valley aquifer (MARVA), and Mississippi state regulators have responded by requiring withdrawal permits, establishing permitted withdrawal limits, and instituting required minimum levels of irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) practices. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of integrating irrigation water management (IWM) practices—including computerized hole selection (CHS), surge flow irrigation (SURGE), and sensor-based irrigation scheduling—on irrigation water use, soybean grain yield, IWUE, and net returns above irrigation costs at the production scale. The experiment was conducted in the Prairie region of Arkansas and the Delta region of Arkansas and Mississippi from 2013 through 2015. The research consisted of 20 paired fields, with the same cultivar, soil type, planting date, and management practices. One field was randomly assigned as the control (conventional, CONV) and the other was instrumented with CHS, SURGE, and soil moisture sensors, that is, IWM. Flowmeters were installed in the inlets to both fields, and the farmers provided yield data. Soybean grain yield averaged 69.0 bu/acre and did not differ between CONV and IWM (P = 0.6703). Relative to CONV, IWM reduced water use 21% (P = 0.0198) and increased IWUE 36% (P = 0.0.0194). Net returns for soybean production above irrigation costs were not different between CONV and IWM, even when pumping depth ranged from 18 ft to 400 ft and diesel costs ranged from $1.60/gal to $3.70/gal (P ≥ 0.5376). These results demonstrate that implementation of integrated IWM at the production scale reduces the demand on depleted groundwater resources without adversely affecting soybean grain yield or on-farm profitability.

Open access

Yield‐Based Corn Planting Date Recommendation Windows for Iowa

Abstract

Core Ideas

  • Three distinct site-groupings resulted, with different recommended planting windows.
  • Two planting windows were developed for each site-grouping: 98–100% grain yield or 95–100% grain yield.
  • The north-central and northeast grouping had the earliest recommended planting window to maximize grain yield.

Farmers use a suite of management practices to optimize corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield, including planting at appropriate times for their location. Research on planting dates across the years has tended to use categorical analysis and determination of recommendations by identifying a particular calendar date as optimum and setting yield decline relative to that. This approach was suitable given the experimental designs and number of sites available for analyses. An 18 site-year Iowa dataset, however, that was constructed with planting dates on a sliding scale allowed regression analysis to be used instead of categorical analysis. This approach resulted in the construction of planting-date recommendations as a window of time. Three distinct site-groupings resulted for Iowa, which is different than previous statewide research: north-central (NC) and northeast (NE); northwest (NW) and central (C); and southwest (SW) and southeast (SE). Two planting windows were developed for each site-group based on the maximum yield on the response curve and a subtraction of 2 or 5% relative yield to develop yield windows of 98–100% or 95–100%, respectively. The response curves for each site-grouping identify locations that exhibit a stronger grain-yield response to planting date, especially in the northern and southern locations. The NC–NE grouping had the earliest 98–100% planting window (12–30 April) whereas the NW–C grouping (15 April–9 May) and SW–SE grouping (17 April–8 May) were later.

Kochia Suppression with Cover Crops in Southwestern Kansas

Abstract

Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.) is a well-adapted weed found throughout the semiarid Great Plains and has increased in concern because biotypes with resistance to numerous herbicide modes of action are present, thus reducing options for control. The objectives of the research were to determine if cover crops growing during the fallow phase of a no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow cropping system could reduce kochia density and biomass without reducing subsequent winter wheat yields. Five fall-sown cover crops of Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum ssp. arvense), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), winter triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.), and mixtures of Austrian winter pea-winter triticale and hairy vetch-winter triticale were evaluated and compared with chemical fallow and to five spring-sown cover crops of spring lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), spring pea (Pisum sativum L.), spring triticale, and mixtures of spring lentil-spring triticale and spring pea-spring triticale. Fall-sown triticale alone or in mixture reduced kochia density by 78 to 94% and reduced kochia biomass by 98% compared with kochia in chemical fallow. Spring-sown cover crops and kochia emerged together in early March; thus kochia density and biomass were not affected by these cover crops. Fall-sown cover crops that produced more biomass were most effective at suppressing kochia density and biomass. All cover crops were terminated by either forage harvest or chemical application by June 1. Subsequent winter wheat yields varied by cover crop across years, and in general winter wheat after cover crops yielded comparable to or less than chemical fallow.

Open access

Estimating Wheat Yield with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Fractional Green Canopy Cover

Abstract

Core Ideas

  • Normalized difference vegetation index and fractional green canopy cover best estimated wheat grain yield.
  • Normalized difference vegetation index and fractional green canopy cover measurements should be conducted prior to Feekes 6 growth stage.
  • Camera height should be adjusted to capture three rows of wheat in the image when using fractional green canopy cover to estimate wheat grain yield.

Producers are interested in methods for estimating wheat grain yield at earlier growth stages. Ability to estimate wheat yield early in the growing season could provide producers with the flexibility needed to decide whether to terminate their wheat crop to plant a more profitable alternative crop, such as soybean. The traditional assessment method, counting plants and tillers, is tedious and time consuming. There is a need to create easier methods to estimate wheat yield, such as normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) or fractional green canopy cover (FGCC). The objective of this study was to compare NDVI, FGCC, and stem count measurements at multiple wheat growth stages to estimate winter wheat grain yield. Trials were established during the 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 growing seasons at two locations in Ohio. Treatment included wheat seeding rates of 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 million seeds/acre to mimic a poor to excellent wheat stand. Wheat stand assessment methods of NDVI, FGCC, and stem counts were conducted at Feekes 1 (emergence), Feekes 5 (leaf sheaths strongly erect), and Feekes 6 (first node visible) growth stages. Regression models were used to estimate wheat yield. Normalized difference vegetation index (R2 = 0.49) and FGCC (R2 = 0.45) best estimated wheat grain yield while stem count measurements accounted for 29% of the variability in yield. However, NDVI and FGCC measurements are time sensitive and should be conducted prior to Feekes 6 growth stage, and for FGCC, camera height should be adjusted to capture three rows of wheat in the image.

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