About the Journal

Crop Science, the flagship publication of CSSA, is a top international journal in the fields of crop breeding and genetics, crop physiology, and crop production and is a critical outlet for articles describing plant germplasm collections and their use.

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September-October Crop Science Issue Features Special Section: International Turfgrass Research Conference

This special issue showcases research to be presented at the 2022 International Turfgrass Research Conference to be held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Read the introduction by Dr. Trygve Aamlid. Read more

Browse Articles

Open access

Introduction to the Crop Science special issue, International Turfgrass Research Conference 2022

  •  2892-2892
  •  30 September 2021
No abstract is available for this article.

Cover Image, Volume 61, Issue 5

  •  30 September 2021


On the cover: A newly developed laser distance device measures turf height and estimates yield in turf experiments. See Patton and Braun (https://doi.org/10.1002/csc2.20295). Photo credit: Ross Braun.

Open access

Grain yield response to cultivar and harvest time of the first crop in rice ratooning in southwestern Japan

  •  20 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • Takanari produced a lower grain yield of the second crop at late harvest in 2019.
  • Takanari had fewer spikelets at late harvest due to the lower stubble leaf area index (LAI) in 2019.
  • For Takanari, grain yield of the second crop did not differ between harvest times in 2020.
  • Takanari did not have fewer spikelets at late harvest due to the higher nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) content in 2020.
  • The sufficient stubble LAI and NSC could be essential for improving grain yield.

Open access

Time series barley germination is predictable and associated with known seed dormancy loci

  •  17 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) and logistic regression are applicable to germination trait modeling.
  • Association with FPCA and logistic models identified known and novel loci affecting germination.
  • FPCA and logistic models coupled with genomic prediction predict traits with high accuracy.
  • Time series modeling applies to breeding for preharvest sprouting resistance and malting traits.

Characterization of PmBN418, a wheat powdery mildew resistance gene on the rye 1RS chromosome arm

  •  16 September 2021

Core Ideas

  • A new powdery mildew resistance gene PmBN418 was identified in wheat cultivar Bainong 418.
  • PmBN418 resides on a 1BL.1RS translocation different from derivatives of the cultivar Petkus.
  • PmBN418 conferred resistance to several U.S. Bgt isolates and is a valuable resistance gene.

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Vernalization requirements of KernzaTM intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)

Core Ideas

  • Kernza has moderate vernalization requirement for flowering.
  • Plant heading percentage increased from 3 to 7 weeks at 5 C and 10 h light.
  • Plant heading % did not differ among Kernza populations from KS and MN exposed to cold.

Soil water storage and maize (Zea mays L.) yield under straw return and tillage practices

Core Ideas

  • Crushed straw coupled with deep ploughing greatly improved soil water storage and maize yield.
  • Under no-till, whole straw cover obtained more soil water and yield than crushed straw cover.
  • Maize yield had significant positive correlation with soil water storage at sowing.

more >
Open access

Phenotyping cowpea for seedling root architecture reveals root phenes important for breeding phosphorus efficient varieties

Core Ideas

  • ✓ Significant variation exists for seedling root phenotypes in elite cowpea genotypes.
  • ✓ Two important seedling root phenotypes were associated with yield under low soil phosphorus conditions.
  • ✓ Three phenotypic clusters were identified using seed dimension and seedling root architecture phenotypes.
  • ✓ Seedling root phenotypes can guide cowpea breeding for low phosphorus soils.

Stability Parameters for Comparing Varieties1


The model, Yij = μ1 + β1Ij + δij, defines stability parameters that may be used to describe the performance of a variety over a series of environments. Yij is the variety mean of the ith variety at the jth environment, µ1 is the ith variety mean over all environments, β1 is the regression coefficient that measures the response of the ith variety to varying environments, δij is the deviation from regression of the ith variety at the jth environment, and Ij is the environmental index.

The data from two single-cross diallels and a set of 3-way crosses were examined to see whether genetic differences could be detected. Genetic differences among lines were indicated for the regression of the lines on the environmental index with no evidence of nonadditive gene action. The estimates of the squared deviations from regression for many hybrids were near zero, whereas extremely large estimates were obtained for other hybrids.

Stage of Development Descriptions for Soybeans, Glycine Max (L.) Merrill1

  • Crop Science
  •  929-931
  •  1 November 1971


We developed stage of development descriptions which we believe apply to all soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes grown in any environment. The descriptions apply to single plants or a community of plants and are precise and objective.

Vegetative and reproductive development are described separately. Vegetative stages are determined by counting the number of nodes on the main stem, beginning with the unifoliolate node, that have or have had a completely unrolled leaf. Reproductive stages Rl and R2 are based on flowering, R3 and R4 on pod development, R5 and R6 on seed development, and R7 and R8 on maturation.

The stage descriptions should enhance soybean research by standardizing descriptions of soybean plant development. The system also will be used by the soybean hail insurance industry for stage determination in adjustment of losses.

Genomic Selection for Crop Improvement


Despite important strides in marker technologies, the use of marker-assisted selection has stagnated for the improvement of quantitative traits. Biparental mating designs for the detection of loci affecting these traits (quantitative trait loci [QTL]) impede their application, and the statistical methods used are ill-suited to the traits' polygenic nature. Genomic selection (GS) has been proposed to address these deficiencies. Genomic selection predicts the breeding values of lines in a population by analyzing their phenotypes and high-density marker scores. A key to the success of GS is that it incorporates all marker information in the prediction model, thereby avoiding biased marker effect estimates and capturing more of the variation due to small-effect QTL. In simulations, the correlation between true breeding value and the genomic estimated breeding value has reached levels of 0.85 even for polygenic low heritability traits. This level of accuracy is sufficient to consider selecting for agronomic performance using marker information alone. Such selection would substantially accelerate the breeding cycle, enhancing gains per unit time. It would dramatically change the role of phenotyping, which would then serve to update prediction models and no longer to select lines. While research to date shows the exceptional promise of GS, work remains to be done to validate it empirically and to incorporate it into breeding schemes.

Vigor Determination in Soybean Seed by Multiple Criteria1

  • Crop Science
  •  630-633
  •  1 November 1973


A multiple criteria approach is presented by which vigor was evaluated in 16 lots of soybean (Glycine max L., cv. ‘Lee-68’) seed by determining O2 uptake, CO2 production, uptake of labeled glucose or leucine, conversion of isotopes into 14CO2 and polysaccharides or proteins, and leaching of metabolites through membranes of excised embryonic axes after 5 hours of imbibition. The concept upon which this approach is based is that excised embryonic axes from vigorous seed lots take up more sugars and amino acids from imbibing media, incorporate these metabolites faster into polysaccharides and proteins, and permit less leaching of nonused metabolites into surrounding aqueous media than axes from less vigorous seed lots. These measurements focus on the biosynthetic capacity of the axis and the integrity of its cellular membranes.

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